Penny Allan landscape architect/practicing academicPenny.allan@vuw.ac.nz

Open space innovation in earthquake affected cities

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There are two types of resilience: engineering resilience, and ecological resilience.  Engineering resilience is drawn from environmental sciences where the resistance to disturbance and rate of return to an optimal equilibrium is paramount. It is predicated on understanding the componentry of a system, the universal applicability of resilience principles, and its ‘efficiency, constancy and predictability’– all attributes at the core of engineers’ briefs for fail-safe design.

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